The 19th-century reign of Queen Victoria sparked a revolution that led to the innovation of many manufacturing processes. Transportation of raw materials was improved by the construction of the railway system. It was easier to get mass produced Bedfordshire bricks and Welsh slate from the North. Greater architectural aspects from Greek facades led to the design of homes with elaborate designs. It was common to come across ornamental shingles, cast-iron railings, angled grooves and stained windows. Most common Victorian houses were designed with unique fireplaces, terracotta tiles and geometric stonework lining the interior.
Ostentatious designs and architectural beauty were what Victorian Era architecture embodied. Window manufacturers tried to capture this artistic resurgence in their sash designs. Gregorian homes had their sash windows redesigned to accommodate larger panels and better glazing on the glass panes. In most cases, the larger glazing bars were replaced by smaller and better concealable glazing bars. Window proportions changed in the Victorian era to improve light permeation into homes.
Additionally, more sashes and windowpanes were added to the windows. It was the norm to find eight or twelve-pane sash windows as a result of the use of larger windowpanes. In some extreme cases, sash windows would have sixteen-panes, but this was mostly used in homes overlooking a harbour or bay. A combination of the number, shape, and size of sash windows gave Victorian architectural its distinct design. Upright sash windows protected house inhabitants from too much glare while allowing adequate light to permeate the home. Window graduation was used to allow light to reach the rooms in the home.
Some gothic-inspired Victorian terraces and villas used four glass panels in their sash windows. An adaptation of these windows was used in less expensive terrace homes. These homes used plate-glass in sash windows of essential rooms. Glass production advancements meant that such homes would only need one glazing bar for the sash windows. Eventually, even rural homes were being produced using the new glass manufacturing techniques.
In the Victorian era, many builders developed a preference for sash windows. Soon these windows became the staple for London buildings. The architectural benefits of installing the windows as well as the availability of low-cost glass techniques helped make sash windows the predominant window design in the Victorian Era.
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